Wednesday, August 31, 2011

Internet Addiction Among College Students 10 Startling Trends

August 30th, 2011

It would be difficult, if not impossible, to find a college campus that doesn’t have Internet. College students use the Internet for research, communication, and other educational activities. Of course, students also use the Internet for social media, news, and even online gambling, activities that can be fun and even enriching, but when overused, become a real problem. Some college students suffer from Internet addiction, unable to step away from the computer or put down mobile devices even for a day. Eighty-four percent of college counselors agree that Internet Addiction Disorder is legitimate, but at the same time, 93% of them have not been fully trained to diagnose Internet addiction, and 94% have insufficient training for Internet addiction treatment. The result? Falling grades, physical problems, and even clinical addiction. Internet addiction is a real problem for college students, and we’ve shared several trends that are worrisome.

  1. Students have feelings similar to drug and alcohol addiction

    Two hundred students were asked to abstain from all media for 24 hours, and were then asked to blog about their experiences. The words the students used to describe their feelings during the restriction period were typically the same words associated with a substance abuse addiction: "withdrawal, frantically craving, very anxious, antsy, miserable, jittery, crazy." It seems that these students are addicted to media, particularly in its online form. This is disturbing, but not surprising, as studies have already shown that Google can actually change your brain.

  2. College students are especially susceptible to Internet Behavior Dependence

    A college student case study revealed that college students are a "population of special concern" when it comes to Internet addiction, and they are disproportionately vulnerable due to psychological and environmental factors in their lives. When faced with an Internet addiction, college students have a hard time forming their identity and building intimate relationships. Online, students can "develop relationships devoid of the anxiety found in face-to-face relationships," and they "can take on any persona they desire, without fear of judgment on appearance or personal mannerism, and can avoid racial and gender prejudice." This type of adaptive behavior tends to diminish the social capacity of college students, leaving them unprepared for the development of real world relationships.

  3. Online poker is prevalent on college campuses

    Online poker joins two addictions together: gambling and online interaction, so its use on college campuses is especially worrisome. The University of Pennsylvania predicts that over 20% of college students play online poker at least once a month, and you can typically see lots of students playing online poker on a college campus. Although it can be a fun game, and many students may be able to maintain healthy lives while enjoying playing online poker, some simply can’t. At the University of Pennsylvania, researchers noted that among college gamblers that played weekly, over half of them had a serious problem with the habit. In some cases, students fail out of classes or gamble their tuition away, even turning to crime to pay debts created by online poker.

  4. Students can’t go 24 hours without the Internet

    When 1,000 college students took part in an international study on electronic media, they were asked to go without media for 24 hours. But many students in the study were not up to the challenge. A majority of students did not actually go without media for 24 hours, giving in and checking in with their phones or email. Students confessed, "I sat in my bed and stared blankly. I had nothing to do," and "Media is my drug; without it I was lost. How could I survive 24 hours without it?" The study revealed a physical dependency on media, especially Facebook and mobile phones. Students recognized that typing the address for their favorite sites had become muscle memory: "It was amazing to me though how easily programmed my fingers were to instantly start typing "f-a-c-e" in the search bar. It’s now muscle memory, or instinctual, to log into Facebook as the first step of Internet browsing." Other students recognized physical signs of withdrawal, sharing that "I would feel irritable, tense, restless and anxious when I could not use my mobile phone. When I couldn’t communicate with my friends, I felt so lonely, as if I was in a small cage in a solitary island."

  5. Students are surfing, not studying

    Students who spend a lot of time online are likely to neglect their studies. In many cases, students who performed well in school before developing an Internet addiction allowed their grades to crash, only then realizing the impact of Internet dependency. Counselors across the US have identified the problems of excessive Internet use, including: lack of sleep and excess fatigue, declining grades, less investment in relationships with a boyfriend or girlfriend, withdrawal from all campus social activities and events, general apathy, edginess, or irritability when off-line, and rationalizing that what they learn on the Internet is superior to their classes. Students may not realize the problem until serious trouble happens: "They flunk out of college. Their real-life girlfriend breaks up with them because all they ever want to do is play on the Net. Their parents explode when they find out their huge investment in their child’s college education is going to support all-night Internet sessions." By then, it may be too late to recover the damage.

  6. The Internet is everywhere

    Ninety-eight percent of students own a digital device. This prevalence throws gasoline on a spark: students who are already susceptible to Internet addiction have access online in computer labs, their dorm, and other places around campus, and on top of that, they have the Internet in their pocket at all times. Knowing this, it’s not surprising to find out that 38% of students say they can’t go more than 10 minutes without using a digital device, contributing to an ever-present existence of the Internet on campus.

  7. Internet use can physically change your brain

    In a study of Chinese college students who were online for 10 hours a day, six days a week, morphological changes in the structure of their brains were noted. Scientists found reductions in the size of the "dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, rostral anterior cingulate cortex, supplementary motor area and parts of the cerebellum as high as 10-20%." Although at the same time, there was an increase in the "density of the right parahippocampal gyrus and a spot called the left posterior limb of the internal capsule." These changes happen to the detriment of short term memory and decision-making abilities.

  8. Many students need intervention and treatment for their addiction, and it can lead to depression

    We might joke about "Crackberries," but for some, the Internet is truly a significant concern. A study published in BMC Medicine indicated that 4% of the students who participated in their survey met the criteria for having a problem with online addiction. But perhaps the more disturbing fact from this study is that there is a "significant association between pathological Internet use and depression in college students," putting a population that is already at risk for mental instability in a precarious position.

  9. Cyberbullies go to college, too

    Although most of the news on cyberbullying focuses on adolescents, the fact is that cyberbullies exist on the college campus as well. It’s not surprising, considering how much time students spend online, and how much impact a college student’s online presence can have. In fact, a University of New Hampshire study reported that one in 10 students was abused online. College students have been the target of sexually violent rants, and one professor at BU had to persuade Facebook to remove his page, which he did not set up himself. Researchers believe that students are especially vulnerable to cyberstalking because "they live in a relatively closed community where class schedules, phones, and e-mails are easy to find." And sites like Rate My Professors may be helpful for students choosing classes, but some comments may be hurtful for faculty members. Thierry Guedj, adjunct professor of psychology at Metropolitan College reports, "It really hurts faculty members badly when they read these things about themselves online. People have become quite depressed about it."

  10. Tech conditions can be dangerous to your health

    College Candy’s list of tech conditions that can be dangerous to your health seems to be written as a joke, citing "Blackberry Neck," and "Glazey Dazey Lazy Eye," but these conditions really can be a problem. Using the Internet too much can lead to a sedentary lifestyle, a decline in physical fitness, and as a result, weight gain. Heavy users report carpal tunnel syndrome, eye strain, and headaches. Sleep disturbances can also stem from Internet addiction, as Internet use may lead to later bedtimes and less restful sleep. Additionally, researchers believe that the light from computer screens may affect circadian rhythms, creating a risk factor for insomnia.

Taken From Accredited Online Colleges

Liberal Arts Leaders: The 50 Best Professors Who Blog

August 30th, 2011
Because the liberal arts encompass such a diverse array of subjects and perspectives, even the most impassioned student still can’t explore everything it involves. But the knowledge-hungry out there pining away for intellectual stimulation beyond the classroom have the magical, mythical Internet at their disposal. Amidst the Pop Tart cats and arguments proving Mike Godwin right, professors from every discipline imaginable have carved out their own little blogging niche. Plenty more than these exist, each of them with something interesting to say, so use the following list as a springboard towards checking out the diverse research available for an audiences’ educated consideration.

English and Rhetoric

  1. The Blogora: A plethora of English and rhetoric professors from the Rhetoric Society of America keep an informative and interesting group blog about … ummmm … well, it should be kind of obvious.
  2. University Diaries: University Diaries is owned and maintained by an English professor, who adores Joyce and profusely argues for higher ed reform.
  3. Bardiac: Feminism, Shakespeare and feminist interpretations of Shakespeare collide in an excellent, essential read for English literature buffs.
  4. Gerald R. Lucas: The eponymous professor teaches both English and the humanities, making his blog an eclectic, never boring liberal arts resource.
  5. The Classroom Conservative: Craig Monk is an English professor who provides a provocative look at both his field and bolstering higher education using strategies already in place.
  6. Spinuzzi: Check out this University of Texas rhetorician’s blog for some great advice and ruminations on how research and writing might evolve alongside technology.
  7. The Little Professor: The Little Professor makes for a great place to go learn more about all things Victorian literature, though it does delve into other subjects as well.
  8. forms traced by light: English buffs with an affinity for photography have plenty to pique their minds here, with some great images and discussions about their intersections with writing and perception.
  9. digital digs: For new media, journalism, literature and technology enthusiasts, Alex Reid’s digital digs provides some absolutely superb information and ideas.
  10. the age of perfection: At once fun and philosophical, this blog juxtaposes professional development and discoveries alongside more intimate, personal tales.
  11. History

  12. Blogenspiel: Medieval history buffs will absolutely flip for one of the most entertaining, intelligent and educational blogs on the subject.
  13. The Cranky Professor: The Cranky Professor’s subtitle — "You type, and I tell you why 4,500 years of written history shows you’re wrong" — says pretty much everything visitors need to know.
  14. Informed Comment: With the Muslim world awash in so much controversy and misunderstanding these days, University of Michigan history professor Juan Cole’s commentary is refreshing, intelligent and welcome.
  15. Cliopatra: History scholars and professors from around the world alike convene at Cliopatra keep a group blog about a staggeringly broad range of eras.
  16. Tenured Radical:The Chronicle of Higher Education hosts Claire B. Potter’s musings on history as it relates to culture, politics and feminism.
  17. Wonders and Marvels: As its title implies, Wonders and Marvels concerns itself with the little bits of weirdness and curiosity strewn about history.
  18. Legal History Blog: Multiple law and legal history professors come together and talk about the development of politics and justice over human history’s entire course.
  19. PaleoJudaica: University of St. Andrew’s James R. Davila specializes in ancient Judaism, which he blogs about in great detail here, with plenty of captivating articles and reviews.
  20. Liberty & Power: Like Cliopatra, the group resource Liberty & Power is presented by George Mason University’s History News Network. Professors and scholars here discuss how human perceptions and practice of politics and personal freedom have changed — or not — over time.
  21. Scattered & Random: Amongst the "scattered and random musings," historical opining from an RNU professor occasionally slips through.
  22. Humanities

  23. Jerz’s Literacy Weblog: Dr. Dennis Jerz keeps a fantastic, eclectic read covering a tantalizingly broad range of humanities, cyberculture, writing and journalism topics.
  24. The Feminist Spectator: Although maintained by an English professor, The Feminist Spectator’s main thrust explores intersections between the arts and perceptions of women and the LGBTQIA community, a much wider focus than just literature and writing!
  25. Dan Cohen: The digital humanities world … umm … pretty much exactly what one would imagine. Dan Cohen’s amazing resource stays on top of all the latest and greatest developments.
  26. Law & Humanities Blog: Here, a duo of law professors open up some great discussions about how legal history frequently overlaps with the humanities, sometimes in very unexpected ways.
  27. Medical Humanities Blog: Explore the sometimes mindblowing ways in which history, policy and medicine shape one another forever through this seriously cool interdisciplinary blog.
  28. DIS Staff Blog: Staff members from University College London’s information studies frequently cover digital humanities on their shared space.
  29. Arts and Humanities blog: For anyone capable of reading Spanish (or handy with Google Translate), this group blog keeps visitors on the cutting edge of liberal and visual arts’ relationship with the humanities.
  30. The Bookfish: Though maintained by English professor Steve Mentz, The Bookfish’s odd and wonderful brew of thalassology and Shakespeare render it an eclectic humanities read instead.
  31. The Arcade Blogs: Stanford’s Roland Green directs a curated, intellectual group blog (and virtual think tank) featuring professors, creatives and other professionals debating humanities topics.
  32. Matthew G. Kirschenbaum: This University of Maryland dynamo works in the English Department and directs Digital Cultures and Creativity, which stands at the forefront of promoting and exploring the digital humanities scene.
  33. Philosophy

  34. Philosophy Talk: The Blog: Both a podcast and an accompanying blog, Philosophy Talk features two professors, their reporters and special guests mulling over all things … umm … just read the title.
  35. A Philosopher’s Blog: Michael LaBossiere teaches philosophy, writes about philosophy and finds philosophy in an incredibly impressive array of subjects and interests.
  36. Leiter Reports: Lovers of legal, economic, intellectual and political philosophy can easily spend hours getting lost on University of Chicago law professor Brian Leiter’s comprehensive (and extremely popular) resource.
  37. Doing Good Science: Scientific American brought on a philosophy professor to discuss issues relating to science and ethics, particularly those involving training the next generation of innovators.
  38. The Splintered Mind: Philosophy and psychology meld together in Eric Schwitzgebel’s insightful blog about how the ordered and disordered brains may (or may not) perceive the world.
  39. Moral Health: Not everyone will agree with some (or even most) of the points Moral Health shares, but it certainly adds to overarching discussions about ethics, morality, religion and politics.
  40. Think Tonk: A super sharp philosophy professor muses on epistemology, culture, politics and ethics — and, of course, how they all fit together.
  41. Warp, Weft, and Way: This group blog brings together philosophy educators and experts for a stimulating ongoing examination of relevant Chinese and comparative topics.
  42. The Brooks Blog: Thom Brooks at Newcastle University focuses most of his writings on the philosophy of public policy and politics, though he does delve into other relevant subjects as well.
  43. Certain Doubts: Leading epistemologists, some professors, some not, convene at Certain Doubts to talk about this particular philosophical corner.
  44. Social Sciences

  45. Laura’s psychology blog: Laura Freberg is a professor, textbook author and researcher with some incredible things to share about psychology and brain disorders.
  46. Politics and Law at The Berkeley Blog: Hear what the different faculty and staff members of Berkeley’s law and political science departments have to say about relevant current events and perspectives.
  47. The Global Sociology Blog: A French expat, professor and passionate activist blogs about sociology with a conscience and keen eye for justice and equality.
  48. Warren Throckmorton: Explore the psychology of politics, culture, sexuality, religion and more courtesy of this extremely insightful Grove City College professor.
  49. PoliBlog: Steven L. Taylor considers politics "the master science" and delivers a running commentary of today’s volatile partisan climate.
  50. Asian Nation: Keep up with all the sociological news, views and issues impacting the Asian-American community, courtesy of Cuong Nguyen Le from University of Massachusetts Amherst.
  51. Todd Kashdan: A George Mason University professor cross-posts his Psychology Today writings, which make psychology subjects accessible to more general audiences.
  52. Though a law professor, Michael Froomkin’s writing focuses on intersections between politics, legal issues and the public sector — not just his area of concentration.
  53. Scatterplot: Sociology buffs will undoubtedly find something to love about this digital gathering of professors and professionals expounding on a wide array of relevant subjects.
  54. The Ethical Professor: Psychology and philosophy collide on Mitchell M. Handelsman’s Psychology Today blog about academia’s behavior issues and non-issues.
Taken From Online Colleges

What is the Internet Public Llibrary and What Will I Find There

The Internet Public Library, or IPL or ipl2, is a non-profit organization with a website hosted by students at Philadelphia’s Drexel University. The IPL was founded at the University of Michigan in 1995, and since then, has provided reference material on a wide array of subjects. The site has direct information, as well as compilations of source data. Below are a few of the things you can research through this site.

  1. Entertainment – Users can research any number of topics, from movie reviews to outdoor entertainment and leisure activities. Restaurant guides are available, as well as news of Broadway and Hollywood.
  2. Health News – The library is a good source for health and medical news, whether you need information on nutrition, illness or anatomy, and sources are easy to identify.
  3. Newspapers – Click on a state and instantly pull up a list of periodicals. Within seconds, you can verify, in the Virginia Informer, that the College of William and Mary is about to institute mandatory meal plans for students, in order to help shore up sagging revenues.
  4. Magazines – ipl2 is the place to go when you need to access the Merriam-Webster online magazine, Word, where you can delve deeply into the June, 2011 word-of-the-month, “travesty”, and see how Supreme Court Justice Antonin Scalia may have misused the word in a recent opinion.
  5. Travel – The Budget Traveler’s Guide to Sleeping in Airports is a must-read for those who plan to spend most of their two-week vacations waiting in airport lines, as their luggage enjoys the sunny beaches of Cancun.
  6. Education – Teachers like the site because they can access a world of information on teaching techniques and class activities, as well as finding blogs and chats on almost every educational topic.
  7. Computer – Have a question about your computer? Ipl2 can steer you to answers, on subjects ranging from search tips to hardware specifications to blogs on the latest innovations.
  8. Search Help – Sometimes research criteria can be vague, and the Internet Public Library has a “wildcard” feature in its search apparatus that helps broaden searches using alphanumeric techniques.
  9. Literature – Information about literature and authors is easy to access, ranging from Ray Bradbury’s biography to attempts to censor the works of William Shakespeare to criticisms of modern works.
  10. Ask the Librarian – This feature allows users to type a question that will be researched by staff librarians, a service currently offered 24/7, and the librarians will respond via email. Also available is a FAQ section, which can speed up research.

Educators and lay persons alike can benefit from the offerings of this virtual library, and students should be able to use the site for valuable term paper help.

Taken From Internet Service Providers

The 80 Best Twitter Feeds in Instructional Technology

Instructional technology is prevalent in college, whether you’re taking online classes or attending in person. Students today are using technology more than ever, and it only makes sense to use tech tools for a 21st century education. But innovations in instructional technology seem to pop up anew every day, and without your ear to the ground, it’s easy to miss important new developments. To help you keep up with the latest in instructional technology, we’ve highlighted 80 of the best Twitter feeds in the field. These Twitter users report, analyze, and even use instructional technology, sharing their own unique experiences that we can all learn from.


Follow these Twitter accounts to stay up to date on news in instructional technology.

  1. @EmergingEdTech: @EmergingEdTech’s Kelly Walsh regularly tweets about new developments in the field of instructional technology.
  2. @edtechdigest: Edtech Digest highlights cool tools, interviews, trends, and more on @edtechdigest.
  3. @audreywatters: Audrey Watters writes about education tech, open source and open education.
  4. @eSchoolNews: Follow @eSchoolNews to get the latest information and resources for using technology in the classroom.
  5. @ecampusnews: eCampus News shares the latest news on using technology to improve education in colleges and universities.
  6. @eclassroomnews: Teachers can find ed-tech news on @eclassroomnews.
  7. @IHEtech: Steve Kolowich reports on the latest technology news and opinion from Inside Higher Ed.
  8. @HuffPostEdu: HuffPost Education reports on the latest in the K-12 education system, with instructional technology and beyond.
  9. @edudemic: Read about the connection between education and technology from @edudemic.
  10. @EDUCAUSEreview: EDUCAUSEreview shares "why IT matters to higher education."
  11. @OC_org:’s Twitter shares higher education news, with a special interest in educational technology via its hosted #iOLchat.
  12. @TechEdNews: Tech Ed News follows the latest in technology education.
  13. @eLearnMag: Check out @eLearnMag for news, information and opinion on online education and training.
  14. @THEJournalDave: David Nagel covers K-12 education technology for THE Journal.
  15. @OEDB_org: Check out @OEDB_org for 21st century higher education resources, book reviews, and even librarian love.
  16. @josh_keller: Josh Keller covers educational technology for the Chronicle of Higher Education.

Organizations & Groups

These Twitter users represent more than themselves, as the face of an organization or group within the instructional technology community.

  1. @OfficeofEdTech: The US Department of Education shares information from the Office of Educational Technology on this Twitter account.
  2. @iSchoolAdvocate: Nineteen-year-old Travis Allen is director of the iSchool Initiative, working to start a digital learning revolution.
  3. @wcet_info: The WICHE cooperative for educational technologies works to help people learn, connect, and advance.
  4. @educause: This community of IT leaders and professionals are committed to advancing higher education.
  5. @UMich_CRLT: Discuss and learn about research for learning and technology with CRLT@umich.
  6. @adambellow: Adam Bellow is the eduTecher Founder and President discussing educational technology and Web 2.0 for the classroom.
  7. @ISUCTLT: Stay up to date on teaching, learning, and technology at Illinois State University with @ISUCTLT.
  8. @centerofmath: Center of Math tweets about supporting digital open math resources and affordable math textbooks for the future of math.
  9. @A_L_T: The Association for Learning Technology connects learning technologists through this Twitter account.
  10. @know_play: @know_play shows how learning can be fun-and believes that the best learning happens while playing.
  11. @21stCenturyTch: This community is all about education in the 21st century.
  12. @DiscoveryEd: Follow @DiscoveryEd to become a part of this dynamic online teacher community.
  13. @edtechtalk: This community comes together to discuss educational technology on Twitter.
  14. @TeachnologyNews: Teachnology shares online teacher resources, worksheets, and more on Twitter and beyond.


In instructional technology, some of the tools talk, and these in particular do so on Twitter, sharing updates and insight into the field and use of the tools.

  1. @OpenEdSolutions: OpenEd Solutions works to change the way the world learns, offering blended learning.
  2. @SoftChalk: Learn about SoftChalk, an authoring tool for e-learning and student engagement with interactive online lessons.
  3. @OER_Center: Judy Baker shares the work of the OER Center on this Twitter account discussing how the center serves the open education resources needs of community colleges.
  4. @GoogleEduTeam: The Google Education industry shares industry news, new products, and more here on Twitter.
  5. @BbAskDrC: With @BbAskDrC, you can find and contribute Q&A for Blackboard and eLearning.
  6. @_EducationApps_: Follow @_EducationApps_ to find out about the best educational apps available.
  7. @TLC_edu: Read Kimberly Warrner’s tweets to learn about the community at SimpleK12 and 21st Century learning.
  8. @KnowPro: Follow @KnowPro to find out about apps that test knowledge, stimulate thinking, and improve understanding in any subject.
  9. @Thinkfinity: Check out @Thinkfinity to learn about Verizon’s comprehensive digital learning platform.
  10. @LectureTools: @LectureTools offers a web-based interactive presentation tools that promote student engagement in the classroom and beyond.


Follow these Twitter users to learn about instructional technology from professionals in the field.

  1. @kevin_corbett: Kevin is an online program developer interested in online learning, mobile learning, and game-based design.
  2. @ewanmcintosh: Ewan McIntosh brings tech/web startups to the education world.
  3. @ntderosu: Byron Roush work at the OSU College of Nursing as an instructional technologist support faculty teaching both online and face to face.
  4. @ShiftParadigm: Mark Weston is the Education Strategist at Dell, tweeting about enhancement of learning and instruction with technology.
  5. @catherine_delia: Catherine Delia is a former librarian who specializes in e-Learning and Blackboard.
  6. @judyb: Judy Brown is a mobile learning enthusiast tweeting about mobile education in the US and beyond.
  7. @jasongreen: Jason Green shares his opinion as a Community College Distance Learning Director at @jasongreen.
  8. @nharm: Naomi supports 21st century global literacy as an Intel Senior Trainer and MS Certified Peer Coach.
  9. @hybridkris: Kris Rockwell is a self-proclaimed mobile learning punk, developing serious games, ARGs, and mobile learning solutions.
  10. @MarkOronzio: Read about instructional technology from the perspective of Mark Oronzio, a global education technology consultant.
  11. @coordinatortwo: Jose Rodriguez tweets as an educational technologist who works with 21st century learners.
  12. @socratech: Howard Chan is an Education Information Technologist blending education with technology.
  13. @clintlalonde: Clint Lalonde is the Manager of Learning Technologies at Royal Roads University, sharing his knowledge as a Moodle hacker and supporter of networked learning.
  14. @rroysden: Rhonda Roysden is a former teacher and current Instructional Technology Specialist sharing her passion for educational technology.
  15. @kevinoshea: Kevin O’Shea tweets as the Educational Technologist at Purdue University.
  16. @InnovativeEdu: Lisa Nielsen tweets about learning innovatively.
  17. @meeganlillis: Meegan shares her ideas as an instructional technologist in Michigan.


Educators are perhaps the most important people on this list, sharing their insight as they put instructional technology to use in real world classrooms and libraries.

  1. @sidneyeve: Sidneyeve Matrix is a media professor, discussing eMarketing, edTech, PR, and more.
  2. @ITBill: Find out what Bill Knapp, Dean of Learning Technologies at Lakeland Community College has to say about instructional technology.
  3. @anncarnevale: This 2nd grade teacher brings her background as an instructional technology specialist to the classroom.
  4. @gconole: Grainne Conole is a professor of e-learning with The Open University, sharing her interests in learning design, OER, learner experience, theories, and methodologies.
  5. @ipadSammy: Jon Samuelson loves to integrate mobile learning into the classroom, and is a self-proclaimed educational app expert.
  6. @web20classroom: Read what Steven Anderson has to say about making your classroom work with Web 2.0.
  7. @AuntyTech: This former edtech/emedia professor is retired, but still interested in education technology.
  8. @cmslibrarylady: Shawn Hinger is a school librarian tweeting about literacy, technology, information literacy, and libraries.
  9. @msauers: Learn about innovation in library technology from Michael Sauers, the Technology Innovation Librarian for the Nebraska Library Commission.
  10. @wsstephens: Wendy tweets as a high school librarian, giant geek, and Google Certified Teacher.
  11. @buffyjhamilton: Buffy tweets about her interests as a "fierce librarian" and information maven.
  12. @21stprincipal: This principal from North Carolina shares his insight as a 21st century principal.
  13. @coolcatteacher: Vicki Davis is known as the Wikinator by her students, and by others as the co-founder of several educational technology projects and best teacher blog award winner.
  14. @tomwhitby: Tom Whitby is a professor of education and founder of #Edchat, discussing his use of technology as a professor.
  15. @derekbruff: This mathematics educator is also an instructional developer and educational technologist.
  16. @edtechdev: USU education technology professor Dough Holton discusses education technology, communities, and more.
  17. @bwatwood: Britt Watwood supports instructional technology as a Senior Faculty Consultant for online teaching and learning at VCU.
  18. @KarenJan: Karen Janowski is committed to better learning through technology, helping struggling learners with instructional technology.
  19. @ekunnen: Eric Kunnen is an educator tweeting about teaching, learning, and technology.
  20. @courosa: Alec Couros doesn’t just use educational technology, he teaches it as a professor of educational technology and media at the University of Regina.
  21. @susansimon: Read Susan Simon’s tweets to find out about media learning technology at Dartmouth.
  22. @stevekatz: Steve Katz believes in teaching with video, as a Technology Integration Specialist and teacher.
  23. @alicebarr: Alice Barr discusses Google for education, integrating instructional technology, and more.
Taken From Best Colleges Online

10 Ways to Conserve Water in a Drought

When you turn on the faucet there seems to be an endless flow of water that people tend to take for granted. In reality, fresh water is a scarce commodity, especially during a drought. We should always be mindful of the amount of water we waste on a regular basis and do more to conserve. Here are just 10 ways you can conserve water in a drought.

  1. Don’t water lawns – Everyone loves a lush, green lawn, but we need to realize this should be a low priority when there’s a water shortage. Unfortunately, during a drought, your lawn may have to suffer.
  2. Don’t wash cars – A shiny clean car should also be a low priority during drought conditions, but if you absolutely must wash it, do it on the lawn so both can benefit from the same water.
  3. Shower less – People get obsessed with taking showers every day whether they really need to or not. Try limiting the number of showers you take, the amount of time you spend in the shower and share a shower when you can.
  4. Hand wash dishes – Dishwashers use a lot of water, so hand wash dishes as much as possible during a drought. If you do use the dishwasher, make sure it’s completely full of the dirtiest dishes and hand wash the lightly soiled ones.
  5. Less laundry – Another good way to conserve water during a drought is to cut down on laundry. Clothing worn once and not soiled can be worn again without washing. The same goes for bathroom towels that can be hung up or thrown in the drier and used again.
  6. Turn off the faucet – Don’t let the faucet run unnecessarily during a drought. Turn it off while you brush your teeth, shaving or doing dishes. Put vegetable food waste in a compost pile instead of running water for the garbage disposal.
  7. Keep water in fridge – Instead of running tap water until its cold enough to drink, keep it in the refrigerator. You can refill empty water bottles or use a pitcher to have a constant supply of cold water to drink.
  8. Wash produce in a pan – During a drought put fruits and vegetables in a pan to wash instead of rinsing under running water. Then, instead of dumping the dirty water down the sink, use it to water plants.
  9. Check for leaks – Gallons of water is wasted by leaky plumbing and faucets. Check your indoor and outdoor faucets plus the rest of your plumbing system for leaks and make repairs as needed.
  10. Pee in the shower – Even though this seems gross, peeing in the shower saves on the number of times the toilet gets flushed each day. The urine also helps prevent athlete’s foot and is quickly rinsed away by warm soapy water.

If you think about it, there are lots of ways to reuse water instead of letting it run down the drain. During drought conditions you can develop good water use habits that continue even when the drought is over. These good habits will not only save water, but save you money. Remember that only 3% of the earth’s water supply is fresh water so don’t waste it.

Taken From Connect Utilities

10 Ways to Find People You Know on Twitter

If you’ve recently joined the ranks of Twitter tweeple, you may be wondering how to locate tweeps you know. We’re here to help. There are a number of ways you can locate them, and we’ll share some of those means right now. Here’s a list of 10 ways to find people you know on Twitter.

  1. Twitter Search – A Twitter built-in feature. You can search for someone you know by name this way, but unless they’re using their actual name as their user name, you’re out of luck.
  2. Find Friends – From this tab on the Who to Follow page of your Twitter account, you can search for friends on Twitter via an assortment of email services. Click on each one to find contacts using that email. Once you grant Twitter access to your email account, it will pull up a list of email contacts who also have Twitter accounts.
  3. Twellow.comA directory and search engine, this is most effective if you know what name, business or mutual interests you want to use for search criteria as Twellow is used primarily for searching businesses. You can, however, locate individuals who network with certain organizations.
  4. – Think of this one as a sort of Twitter/Google search engine. You can search a variety of criteria – tweets, names, places, subjects – all of which can help you locate contacts.
  5. Follow Whomever Your Friends are Following – Chances are that at some point, many of your friends’ social circles intersect with your own. You can find a lot of mutual friends at these intersections just by following along.
  6. TwitterLocal.comThis site can assist you in a more geographically focused search for contacts. With Twitter’s location-based API in use, this has grown to encompass a much larger source of tweets.
  7. Just Tweet ItThis is a broad directory of Twitter users, listed according to interests and categories. You’ll need to know some background about someone first in order to locate them using
  8. FacebookTwitter users will generally also have Facebook accounts. You can search for them there, then look for their Twitter user names under their Facebook profile.
  9. Twiangulate – No, I didn’t make this one up. It actually exists, and it works. This tool will satisfy the private eye in you. You can use it to literally twiangulate users by means of vectoring with search terms such as mutual followers, mutual friends and keywords.
  10. Google – There’s a very handy tutorial here on how to use Google search commands to locate Twitter users. If you’ve got a little background info to work with, it can save you some search time. By inputting a few keywords into these commands, you can find your friends relatively easily.
Taken From Internet Provider

10 Ways to Read e-Books Without an e-Reader

e-Books are becoming very popular, and while some are a compliment to the paper published book, others are solely available as an electronic book. e-Readers are a great way to take multiple books with you on the go, but did you know that you do not need an e-Reader in order to read an e-Book? Listed below are ten ways to read an e-Book without an e-Reader.

  1. Computer. It doesn’t matter what type of computer you have, whether it be Mac or Windows, laptop or desktop, there are multiple ways to read an e-Book on your computer.
  2. Cell Phone. Most smartphones including iPhone, Android and Blackberry have applications that allow you to read an e-Book right on your cellphone. Very convenient if you want to maximize your mobility with less baggage.
  3. Library Website. Many libraries offer multiple electronic books that can be read on their website for free. You can use any computer to view them, or if you don’t have a computer, you can go to the library and use theirs.
  4. PDF. Many e-Books can be downloaded in a pdf format. In order to open a pdf file all you need to do is download a free reader from Adobe.
  5. EPUB. Similar to the pdf files, you can read many books in the epub format by downloading free software.
  6. Kindle Downloads. Amazon came up with the Kindle e-Reader to read e-Books, but they also give you the option of downloading (for free) their Kindle for PC (or Mac) application to your computer in order to read e-Books without an e-Reader.
  7. Nook Downloads. Barnes and Noble came up with a similar tool to Amazon’s Kindle application to read e-Books without their Nook e-Reader.
  8. Kobo. The Kobo was released to be a competitor with the Kindle. Their desktop version works the same as any of the others, where you can download it to your computer and either read on the computer, or sync to an e-reader.
  9. Smashwords. Smashwords is an e-Book publishing and distributing website where you can download e-Books in a variety of formats. While you can download it to an e-Reader, you can also download an html format and read online on their website.
  10. Google e-Books. This is a great concept because it is a space saver that works both on and offline. Google’s e-Books are stored online so there is nothing to download and take up space on your computer or mobile device. Once you open the file (book) you wish to read you can sync to it and read it offline. The books are stored on a Google account which saves your page for you.

I know people that read e-Books on an e-Reader and their cell phone and their laptop depending on the situation and where they are and what they are doing. Perhaps you will take advantage of reading e-Books, now that you have more information on how to read them without and e-Reader.

Taken From Broadband Service Providers

Tuesday, August 30, 2011

Online Enterprises Gain Foothold as Path to a College Degree -

Online Enterprises Gain Foothold as Path to a College Degree -

'via Blog this'

10 Reasons VOIP Phone Pricing Might Vary

10 Reasons VOIP Phone Pricing Might Vary

We all know that we have to do comparison shopping when we are selecting a cell phone and service provider. We do the same thing when we are deciding on a landline phone and a service provider for that. The same is true for VoIP phones and service. You need to ask ‘what isn’t included’ in prices, and not just settle for the sales pitch that tells you what you do get.

  1. Limited time offers – This seems to be the marketing ploy of many services these days. Sign up for a great low price! (for a limited time) In 3 months, 6 months, a year…sometime in the future your rate will be bumped up to the standard rate.
  2. Limited vs unlimited – Some VoIP plans come with limits on minutes, just like a cell phone plan. Others provide unlimited minutes. Be sure to understand how much calling time you are getting and which calls those limits apply to.
  3. Landline vs mobile calling – When using VoIP phone services, many plans will distinguish between calling landline numbers and mobile phone numbers. You may be able to call landline numbers in 60 countries, but only call mobile numbers in only 10 of those countries. Different plan configurations will have different prices.
  4. Countries being accessed – Which countries and how many, will make a difference in your plan rates as well. Some plans only include the US and Canada. Other plans will include a certain number of other countries.
  5. Pricing for extra minutes – Be sure to know the cost for additional minutes or the costs of calls outside of your plan areas. These are some of the unexpected costs than can turn a small phone bill into a large bill.
  6. Residential vs business – Prices are not the same for residential services and phones, as they are for businesses. You will pay more for a business connection and business phones, but you will generally also have many more features available on those phones.
  7. Hardware requirements – Each of the different VoIP phone services have different requirements for accessing their service. Some provide an adapter that allows you to connect analog phones to your internet connection. Others offer their own unique phone sets. And some, like Skype, are actually software based and can be accessed using your computers microphone and speakers or headset.
  8. Contract vs monthly – There are services that are paid month by month and others that offer a longer term contract. These things will also affect the pricing of VoIP service. Be sure to ask about cancellation fees with services that offer long term or prepaid contracts.
  9. Extra line charges – Many of the services offer two lines as part of their package price, but not all. Be sure to ask the cost of adding additional lines to the service.
  10. Phone features – Most VoIP services will provide features like voice mail, call waiting, caller ID and 3 way calling. You’ll want to make sure that the phones that you are using can utilize these features as well. Because the phones are internet based, often times features and functions on the phones can be changed and selected online.

Voice over IP phones and phone service pricing is much like any other phone service pricing. You need to compare plans and phones to see which one will be the most economical for your situation.

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Taken From Phone TV Internet

The 10 Deadliest Toys of All Time

When you think of scary toys, dolls like Chucky or weapons like your older brother's fake throwing stars probably come to mind. But there were likely much more dangerous play things in your toy chest. Sure, you probably got a few battle scars from stepping on Legos or tripping over some roller skates, but there are a few toys that have been known to kill (or at least seriously injure). Here are 10 of the deadliest toys every made.

  1. Wego Kite Tubes

    The makers behind Wego Kite Tubes probably thought they had a real winner on their hands. What's more fun and exciting than being pulled behind a speeding boat and then taking flight? But this 10-foot-wide inflatable tube that becomes airborne when you pull the handles seems to have been even more dangerous than it sounds. The product warns to "never kite higher than you are willing to fall," but users apparently didn't know that the fall could end up propelling them into the water at 50 mph as the tube unexpectedly nose dives. At least two people died using the tube and many more have broken their necks or backs, and punctured lungs from the impact. The kite tubes have since been recalled.

  2. EZ Sales Mini Hammocks

    Even to uncoordinated adults, hammocks can be trouble. There's always the chance that the pesky thing will swing out from under you as you're trying to rest your rump. But combining the clumsiness of kids and a poorly built hammock is a recipe for disaster. The EZ Sales Mini Hammock was designed to be relaxing for children who just need a break from their hectic lives, but ended up strangling 12 children and injuring others as they got tangled in the hammock while trying to get out. The company neglected to put a spreader bar on the ends that would keep the hammock from closing on the user like a Venus fly trap. The hammock was recalled in 1996 -- 11 years after it was first sold.

  3. Magnetix Magnetic Building Sets

    Even if a toy's not made to be eaten, there's a good chance it will end up in a child's stomach at some point. Just ask any X-ray technician. But most toys won't cause death once they're there. Magnetix Magnetic Building Sets include small magnetic balls and cylinders that you can use to build cool structures, but if they are swallowed, the magnets cause all kinds of problems. They can stick together in the intestines and cause a blockage, or cause holes in the intestines when they are drawn together. At least one child died from Magnetix, another punctured his lung after inhaling pieces of the toy, and several others were injured.

  4. Lawn darts

    Lawn darts are some of those toys that you can't believe were actually produced and marketed for children, but people liked to live on the edge in the '70s and '80s. The large, sharp darts that you were supposed to aim at a ring on the ground were weighted on the pointy end, making them nice weapons to use on the neighborhood kids. More than 6,500 people reported lawn dart injuries before they were recalled and made illegal in 1988. There were at least four deaths. One person, a 7-year-old girl, was killed when she was hit in the skull by a neighbor's stray yard dart.

  5. Aqua Dots

    When parents bought their children the Aqua Dots bead sets, they probably thought they were giving the kids a nice, safe craft project to do. There can't be any danger in small beads that you put together to make nice designs, right? Even when kids accidentally swallowed the beads (or put them in their mouths thinking they might be candy), there didn't seem to be any risk of choking. Instead, these kids ended up unconscious for a couple of hours. One child even had to be hospitalized for almost a week. When ingested, a chemical in the beads apparently turns into gamma hydroxybutyrate, also known GHB or the date rape drug. You better believe this product was recalled when the makers figured it out.

  6. Gilbert U-238 Atomic Energy Lab

    Though it was only sold for one year, from 1951 to 1952, the Gilbert U-238 Atomic Energy Lab has rightfully earned its place among the most dangerous toys ever made. The science kit came with four kinds of uranium ore, a radioactive substance used for nuclear energy. It also included a Geiger counter, an electroscope, and a comic book, Dagwood Splits the Atom. The set wasn't recalled; instead, its short life is thought to be a consequence of its high price of $50. There are no known injuries or deaths from the Atomic Energy Lab, but there's no doubt if it had continued to be sold, there would eventually be dozens of cases of radiation poisoning.

  7. Creepy Crawlers

    This toy was revived in the early '90s with much safer results, but in the '60s, it was dangerous fun. Creepy Crawlers was basically a hot plate with molds that you poured goo into. When it was done, you had plastic bugs to hide around the house. And even though you were supposed to wait seven or more minutes and then use tongs to touch the mold, little boys can't be relied upon to be patient and follow directions. Lots of burns and blisters came about from these popular play things. But worse than burning little kids, Creepy Crawlers' fumes were potentially toxic since people didn't know too much back then about melted PVC or lead paint, which were probably components of the toy.

  8. Yo-Yo Ball

    The Yo-Yo Ball is the lazy kid's alternative to the yo-yo. It's just a squishy ball, sometimes filled with water, attached to an elastic string, so there's no talent needed to make it come back to you. You apparently do need talent, however, to keep it from strangling you. Hundreds of parents have reported that their children have nearly been killed when the cord got tangled around their necks. The accidents may happen when children swing the ball over their head like a lasso, which is clearly the most fun way to use it. This toy is banned in France, Canada, and the United Kingdom, but authorities in the U.S. said the risk is low so they wouldn't recall it.

  9. BB guns

    Besides the risk of shooting your eye out, BB guns, like the Red Ryder made by Daisy, have been known to cause lots of other injuries and death. Though the ones marketed just to children during most of the 20th century were only powerful enough to cause minor injuries, gun manufacturers began making more powerful air guns for adults in the '70s. Since then, the distinction between adult BB guns and toy ones has been hard for the average person to see. Many toy stores and department stores still carry BB guns, and children are using BB guns that have proven to be powerful enough to kill children. Remember: BB guns don't shoot eyes out, little kids who don't know how to use BB guns do.

  10. Fire Footbag

    The traditional hacky sack may be for laid-back hippie types, but this footbag is not for the weak of heart. This hacky sack is made out of Kevlar, soaked in kerosene, and then lit on fire before you play with it. Though the makers of the Fire Footbag only claim shoelaces as casualties so far, it's only a matter of time before someone meets an unfortunate end because of this hacky sack. It's only banned in Australia for now, so this toy's still available for those brave or stupid enough to buy it.

Taken From Online Degree

15 of the First Female Professors in History

August 29th, 2011

There are more female professors today than there ever have been at any point in history, but academia still remains a man’s world — especially in majors like philosophy, engineering and computer science, where female professors are few and far between. While there is undeniably room for improvement, that shouldn’t overshadow the amazing achievements of women who fought a long, hard battle to win a place in the hallowed halls of colleges and universities around the world. Here are some amazing women from history — who today’s professors can thank for paving the way — who earned a professorship job despite a wide range of gender-based obstacles and prejudices against them.

  1. Arria (2nd-3rd century AD)

    Not a lot is known about Arria, and much of what is comes through the writings of Galen, a Greek physician and philosopher who greatly admired her. Arria is said to have been a philosophy professor (and possibly also taught mathematics and astronomy), and was likely very similar to Hypatia in her beliefs and teaching methods. Whoever she was, she must have been doing something right, as Diogenes dedicated his text Lives of the Philosophers to her.

  2. Hypatia (400 AD)

    Daughter of Theon of Alexandria, a mathematics professor and librarian at the Library of Alexandria, Hypatia was familiar with the academic world from a very early age. As she grew up, she would become a renowned scholar in her own right and eventually became the head of the Platonist school at Alexandria, teaching mathematics, philosophy and astronomy. She was such an important scholar that some historians even claim her death (murder at the hands of a mob of monks) marked the beginning of the end for Classical thought.

  3. Trotula de Salerno (11th century AD)

    The Dark Ages weren’t all bad. In fact, some women actually managed to become respected scholars, most notably Trotula of Salerno. She was instrumental in helping revive interest in Ancient Greek science during the medieval period, and she and her "ladies of Salerno" were renowned throughout Italy for their medical expertise and scholarship. Working at the School of Salerno, Trotula taught both male and female students and wrote medical texts like The Diseases of Women, which were used well into the 16th century.

  4. Laura Bassi (1731)

    In modern times, Laura Bassi holds the honor of being the first female professor. A physicist, she was one of the first women to receive a university degree from the University of Bologna (and Europe in general). While there are no archives of her scientific work, she was well-respected among the literati of the time, including Voltaire, Paolo Frisi and Alessandro Volta. In 1731, Bassi would be appointed professor of Anatomy and in 1733 was given the chair of philosophy. While her teaching opportunities were limited in her career’s early years, over time she successfully petitioned the university for more responsibilities and lectures, which she balanced while caring for her eight children. By age 65, she was the chair of experimental physics at the Institute of Sciences, an impressive feat at any point in history — but especially so in the 1700s.

  5. Maria Agnesi (1750)

    An Italian linguist, mathematician and philosopher, Agnesi is created with writing the first book on differential and integral calculus. She also holds a special place in history for being appointed to the faculty of mathematics, natural philosophy and physics at the University of Bologna by the pope. She was not to hold this position for long, however, as her father’s 1752 death motivated her to dedicated her life to charity over academic pursuits.

  6. Maria Mitchell (1865)

    Maria Mitchell holds the honor of being the first female astronomer in the United States. Primarily self-taught, she gained a love of the cosmos while working with her father in the small observatory he built on their roof. Her rise to fame started in 1847 when she spotted a comet, and in 1848 the American Academy of Arts and Sciences voted her the first female member. In 1865, Mitchell accepted a position as professor of astronomy and director of the college observatory at Vassar College, where she continued her research and inspired other young women to pursue careers in the science until her 1888 retirement.

  7. Sarah Jane Woodson Early (1866)

    Sarah Jane wasn’t just one of the first female professors in the U.S., but one of the first African-American women to get a full professorship as well. A graduate of Oberlin College, she was among the first African-American female college grads, and would gain an esteemed position at Wilberforce University in 1866. Owned and operated by African-Americans, the school gave her the freedom to inspire young people to complete their educations and accomplish bigger and better things. Early would go on to serve as the principal and matron of the school and taught at the secondary school level for almost four decades.

  8. Ellen Richards (1884)

    Getting into MIT is hard for anyone, even today, but it was especially difficult for a bright young woman named Ellen Richards in the late 1800s. The school did not admit females at the time, but made a special exception for Richards, who was both the first ever to attend MIT and receive a degree in chemistry. She would go on not only to be the first female professor at MIT, but one of the most esteemed and respected industrial and environmental chemists during her lifetime.

  9. Alice Hamilton (1897)

    Alice Hamilton dreamed of one day becoming a doctor when she was a young girl. While her boarding school gave little attention to science instruction, Hamilton got special tutoring that enabled her to gain admittance into the University of Michigan Medical School. After graduation, Hamilton and her sister (a classical scholar) traveled to Germany and encountered a great deal of prejudice for their gender, as numerous universities refused their graduate studies applications. After finally being accepted in Frankfurt and working as a research assistant at Johns Hopkins, Hamilton was appointed in 1897 as a professor of pathology at the Women’s Medical School of Northwestern University. The appointment was short-lived, but springboarded her into an impressive industrial medicine career. In 1919, she became the first female professor ever hired at Harvard University.

  10. Lutie Lytle (1898)

    Lutie Lytle was one of the first African-American women to earn a law degree, graduating from the Central Tennessee Law School and passing the licensing exam in 1897– only the third African-American woman in the U.S. to achieve this honor. She practiced for a year before joining the faculty at Central Tennessee in 1898, the first female law instructor anywhere in the world. While Lytle would only serve for one year, she continued to practice law and push greater racial equality in the United States until her 1950 death.

  11. Marie Curie (1904)

    If you have heard of anyone on this list, it’s bound to be Marie Curie, who is one of the most well-known female scientists the world has ever known. She was a pioneer in the study of radioactivity (and even coined the term itself), becoming the first person to win two Nobel Prizes — one in physics and one in chemistry. Curie also discovered two new elements, radium and polonium, but she wasn’t all about research, however. In addition, she also had a notable teaching career, and was the first female professor to work at the University of Paris. Curie would go on to found two research institutions of her own, both of which still operate today.

  12. Dorothy Garrod (1939)

    British archaeologist Dorothy Garrod made groundbreaking finds on the Paleolithic era while excavating Palestine with fellow academic Dorothea Bate, leading to a greater understanding of the region’s prehistoric human life. After holding a range of other academic posts, she was finally made a full professor of archaeology at Cambridge in 1939, though equal academic rights and privileges for females would not be extended until 1947. Garrod would go on to work at Cambridge until 1952, and continued to receive many honors, including the Order of the British Empire.

  13. Edith Clarke (1921)

    Orphaned at age 12, Edith Clarke used her inheritance to study mathematics and astronomy at Vassar College. Graduating with honors in 1908, she taught and worked for several years before heading to MIT for her master’s degree in electrical engineering — the first degree in the field ever awarded to one of the school’s women. Most of Clarke’s illustrious career was spent working as an engineer for GE, but she ended up appointed to a professorship at Constantinople Women’s College in 1921. By 1945, she earned a position as the first female professor of electrical engineering at the University of Texas.

  14. Lise Meitner (1926)

    Swedish physicist Lise Meitner researched radioactivity and nuclear physics, and was part of the scientific team that discovered nuclear fission. Which, of course, garnered her colleague Otto Hahn a Nobel Prize, but not her. She hasn’t gone unnoticed to science, however, and the element Meitnerium is named after her. While receiving an assistant professor offer in 1913, Meitner would choose to focus on research until 1926, when she became the first woman in Germany appointed a full professor of Physics. She would work at the University of Berlin until WWII broke out, with Einstein once calling her "the German Marie Curie."

  15. Virginia Apgar (1938)

    If you’ve ever had a child or been close to someone who has, you’ve likely heard the name of this pioneering woman. Virginia Apgar graduated from Columbia University in 1933 and completed her residency in 1937. She would go on to become a leader in the fields of anesthesiology and teratology, and founded the field of neonatology. She is best known for her development of the Apgar score, a method accessing a newborn baby’s health, but she also made some notable firsts throughout her career. She was named Director of Anesthesiology at Columbia University Medical Center in 1938 (the first woman to hold this position in the US), and would later become the school’s first female full professor in 1949.


Taken From Online Colleges